Pakistan Engineering Council,

The Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC) is a statutory body, constituted under the PEC Act 1976 (V of 1976) amended up to 24th January 2011, to regulate the engineering profession in Pakistan such that it shall function as a key driving force for achieving rapid and sustainable growth in all national, economic and social fields. PEC maintains realistic and internationally relevant standards of professional competence and ethics for engineers, and license engineers and engineering institutions to promote and uphold the standards.

Washington Accord,


The Washington Accord (WA) is an international agreement among the engineering bodies of member countries accrediting academic engineering programs at the university level, leading to the practice of engineering at the professional level. In terms of this agreement, each engineering body accepts the accrediting processes of the others. The Washington Accord recognizes the substantial equivalence of engineering education among member countries; hence, engineering graduates are accepted and can practice as engineers in other countries.
Membership of the Washington Accord is recognition of the standards and quality of engineering education offered by the member countries.

In 2017, PEC has been admitted as full signatory of Washington Accord for maintaining standards of Engineering education in line with international standards.

Introduction to OBE (Outcome Based Education)

OBE focuses on students achieving outcomes (required attributes, skills, qualities) after undergoing the learning process through the OBE curriculum. The attainment of the outcomes is a learning process that may vary from one student to the other; regarded as means and not the end objectives. If the outcomes are not attained, they are rethought, thus ensuring the Continual Quality Improvement (CQI) takes place in the education system. OBE shifts the paradigm from teacher-centered to student-centered learning. The new teaching and learning (T&L) approach transform from an emphasis on traditional input, such as course credits earned and hours spent in class, to results or outcomes. It focuses on empirically measuring student performance or the outcomes. OBE implementation requires that students demonstrate that they have learned the required knowledge and developed the required skil and attributes.


 OBE Components

 OBE comprises four 4 major components which cover
1. Curriculum design
2. Teaching and learning methods
3. Assessment
4. Continual quality improvement (CQI) and monitoring
It addresses the following key questions.
• What do you want the students to have and be able to do?
• How can you best help students achieve it?
• How will you know what they have achieved?
• How do you close the loop?


OBE Implementation Process

The OBE implementation process encompasses the establishment of Programme Educational Objectives (PEOs), followed by Programme Learning Outcomes (PLOs), designing curriculum, teaching, and learning (T&L) methods, assessment, CQI, and monitoring.
PEOs are formulated in line with the institutional mission statement and stakeholders' interests. It also addresses the graduate attainment of attributes after their graduation from university. Program Learning Outcomes (PLOs), which consist of abilities to be attained by students before they graduate, are formulated based on the PEOs. PLOs address knowledge, skills, and attributes to be attained by students.


Relationship between Learning topics, CLO, PLO, and PEO

• Topics lead to lesson outcomes.
• Group/individual lesson outcomes lead to course learning outcome (CLO)
• Course learning outcomes must relate to program learning outcomes (PLO)
• Program learning outcomes must address the program educational outcomes (PEO) (What kind of "engineer" are we producing?)


Programme Educational Outcomes (PEOs)

• Programme Educational Outcomes (PEOs) are statements that describe what students are expected to know and be able to perform or attain by the time of graduation.
• These relate to the skills, knowledge, and attitude that students acquire throughout the program.

Program Learning Outcomes (PLO's) according to Washington Accord

Program learning outcomes are defined by Washington Accord which relates to the skills, knowledge, and behavior that students acquire through learning. These are narrower statements given below that describe what students are expected to know and be able to do by the time of graduation.

PLOs (Program Learning Outcomes)




Engineering Knowledge

Ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering fundamentals, and an

engineering specialization to the solution of complex engineering problems.


Problem Analysis

Ability to identify, formulate, research literature, and analyze complex engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of mathematics, natural

sciences, and engineering sciences.


Design and Development of


Ability to design solutions for complex engineering problems and design systems, components, or processes that meet specified needs with appropriate consideration for public health and safety, cultural, societal, and environmental considerations.



Ability to investigate complex problems using research-based knowledge and research methods including design of experiments, analysis, and interpretation of data, and

synthesis of the information to provide valid conclusions.


Modern Tool Usage

Ability to create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering and IT tools, including prediction and modeling, to complex engineering

activities, with an understanding of the limitations.


Engineer and Society

Ability to apply to reason informed by the contextual knowledge to assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities relevant to

professional engineering practice.


Environment and Sustainability

Ability to understand the impact of professional engineering solutions in societal and environmental contexts and demonstrate knowledge of and need for sustainable




Ability to apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities

and norms of engineering practice.


Individual and


Ability to function effectively as an individual, and as a member or leader in diverse teams and multidisciplinary settings.



Ability to communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the engineering community and with society at large, such as being able to comprehend and write effective reports and design documentation, make effective presentations, and give and

receive clear instructions.


Project Management

Ability to recognize the need for and have the preparations and ability to engage in

independent and lifelong learning in the broadest context of technological change.


Lifelong Learning

Ability to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of engineering and management principles and apply these to one's work, as a member and leader in a team, to manage

projects and in multidisciplinary environments.